Anemia: Cause, Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Anemia: Cause, Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention
Anemia is a term used to define the lack of healthy Red Blood Cells (RBC) to transport an adequate amount of oxygen to the body tissue, and it leads to reduced oxygen supply to the organs.
Literature suggest that there are many types of anemia which comes with its own cause, and it could be temporary, long term, mild and severe. 
The major types of anemia include Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA), sickle cell anemia, aplastic anemia, vitamin deficiency anemia and thalassemia. 

Report suggest that anemia is the common disease condition in the United States, and it affects almost 6% of the total population includes young children’s and woman. In developing countries around the world, there are more than 10 million cases reported every year. Out of which woman’s are at high risk of getting affected by IDA because of the blood loss during menstrual discharge and high blood demand during the gestational period. Though some form of mild anemia may cause during pregnancy that will not be taken as a major concern because of the time and nature of anemia.

What causes Anemia?

The human body needs RBC to keep the cells alive as it carries hemoglobin to transfer oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. There are several types of anemia, and the general cause for anemia is due to excessive blood loss, decreased RBC production or faulty production and destruction of RBC or hemoglobin. 
Causes of anemia due to blood loss include gastrointestinal conditions and menstrual bleeding. Excessive breakdown of hemolysis occur due to infections, severe hypertension, enlargement of spleen, clotting disorder, toxins production due to chronic kidney or liver disease, etc. 

Symptoms of Anemia

Like every disease condition, anemia comes with most common symptoms such as shortness of breath, fast heart rate, dizziness, lightheadedness, headache and lack of energy. The specific symptoms for aplastic anemia are fever, rashes and infections and symptoms such as diarrhea irritability and smooth tongue are for iron deficiency anemia. Likewise, swelling, fatigue and jaundice are the symptoms of sickle cell anemia. 

How to treat anemia

The major cause of anemia is blood loss, and the treatment will also be based on the aim of increasing RBC count, which in turn increases the supply of oxygen. For every type of deficiency there will be a different type of treatment, includes
Iron deficiency anemia: IDA can be treated through changing diet plan, and the severe IDA will be treated through supplements and diet plan as well
Aplastic anemia: This condition will be treated by receiving blood transfusions to stabilize the RBC or through bone marrow transplant (to produce new RBC).
Sickle cell anemia: By taking folic acid supplements and antibiotics, sickle cell anemia can be treated, and for severe condition, blood transfusion is recommended.
Vitamin deficiency anemia: Change in meal cycle, vitamin supplements are the options to treat vitamin deficiency.
Hemolytic anemia: In some cases, the patient will be treated using an immunosuppressant drug, otherwise called antirejection drug and blood filtration in other cases. 
Thalassemia: Recommended treatment includes folic acid supplements, and in severe cases, blood transfusions, bone marrow transplants and removal of the spleen may take place upon condition.

How can we prevent Anemia?

Anemia can be prevented by changing the diet plan into nutrition and vitamin-rich food that can help you have a healthy lifestyle. Food such as cereals, slices of bread, green vegetables, pulses, beans, white and red meat, nut and seeds, fish, and dried fruits, etc.


In summary, anemia is a disease condition which occurs due to lack of RBC, and it can be treated using supplements and healthy diets. There are several types of anemia varies from mild to severe and temporary to long-term. The mild condition can be treated easily through daily dietary plans, and severe or long term condition has to take appropriate actions. 
The report suggests that there are still over 10 million cases registered every year in developing nations and 6% of the total population in the US are affected with anemia, and this condition needs to be answered and prioritized as the count will be very high in the poverty region. 

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