How To Make Poultry Feed In Nigeria

How To Make Poultry Feed In Nigeria
Feeding your birds with low quality feed will affect them in so many ways.
Their health will be threatened and they might suffer from retarded growth. Many people are searching for how to make broiler chicken feed, how to make chicken feed for layers, broiler feed ingredients, formula for making broiler feed and broiler finisher feed formula.
We'll also write on poultry feed formula for layers, feed formulation for cockerel in Nigeria and then publish how to make poultry feed pdf.
However, today we are going to talking about making your own feed as a poultry farmer. To start with, there are just a very little percentage of the numerous manufacturers of poultry feed who keep to the standard specifications.

Many of them supply low quality poultry feed, which has also led to the business loses of the owners of these poultry birds. The results you know, will not be anything favorable.
The products from the farm such as eggs and the meat itself will be low quality and thus will have low market value.
Aside that, they have also resulted in poor immune system of the birds, which means greater risks of diseases and eventual death. All these can be curbed if we begin to make our own feeds.
You will also cut off the charges on cost of production, at least by a great percentage.

The A-Z Of Making Your Own Quality Poultry Feed

When making your own feed there are a lot of things you need to put into consideration. You must think about things like the age of the birds, their health status, the cost of production and availability of the ingredients. Some of the most common feed ingredients include soya beans, maize germ, whole maize, cotton, fish meal (omena), seed cake and sunflower.
Aside these, the farmers should also include some feed additives like vitamins, minerals and micronutrients to ensure that their birds have a balanced feed and do not lack any essential supplements.
Most of the materials are readily available and according to researches, farmers who produce their own feed cut off charges by 30-50% for each 70 kg of poultry feed. Moreover, you are sure of what you're giving to your birds since most companies don't actually make their feed to be standard anymore.

See Next: How To Start A Poultry In Nigeria

Now,in formulating of your feed, you will have to make use of the Pearson Square method in which the digestible crude protein, DCP is the primary nutritional requirement for all prepared feeds.
Assuming a poultry farmer wants to make feed using this, they will be sure to know the crude protein content in every ingredient that they will include.

The digestible crude protein values of each of the commonly used ingredients are:
Soya - 45%
Sunflower - 35%
Fishmeal (omena) - 55%
Whole maize - 8.23%
Maize bran - 7%

Also, nutritional requirements differ with categories and should be put into consideration. Take for instance, in formulating feed for layers, the total crude protein content is not meant to be less than 18%.
This implies that in making a 70 kg bag of feed for your layers, you will use the following:
12kg - soya
8kg - omena (fishmeal)
34kg - whole maize
10kg - maize bran
6kg - lime (a source of calcium)

To check if these ingredients meet standard, you do a simple calculation:
Soya - 12kg x 45kg ÷ 100 = 5.40 %
Omena - 8 kg x 55kg ÷ 100 = 4.40 %
Whole maize - 34kg x 8.23 ÷100 = 2.80 %
Lime - 6 kg x 0 kg ÷ 100 = 0.00%
Total % of crude protein = 13.30%

In getting the total crude protein % for all the ingredients in the 70kg bag of feed, take this crude protein content, divide them by 70 kg and then multiply by 100.
It will be 13.30/70 ×100 = 19%.
This means that the formulation of the above feed is 19%, and it is quite good for the layers.
You also need additives in their standard quantities to help ensure that the birds get all they need in terms of minerals, vitamins and amino acids.
We will also list some feed formulations for each of the categories of birds and their required quantity. The farmer needs to purchase these ingredients and then mix them.

Making of 70 kg of layers chick mash (1- 4 weeks)

These growing birds need feed with DCP between 18-20% and you can use the below formulation:
1.5kg - fishmeal
31.5kg - whole maize
16.8 kg - sunflower (or 16.8 kg of linseed)
1.75kg - lime
20g - premix Amino acids
10g - methionine
7.0kg - wheat pollard
9.1kg - wheat bran
50g - enzymes
70g - tryptophan
70 g - Threonine
50g - toxin binder
30g - salt
60g - coccidiostat
3.0g - lysine

Making of 70 kg bag of growers mash (4 to 8 weeks)

The growers need feed having a protein content of between 16-18%. This is to hasten their growth in prep for egg laying.
6kg - cotton seed cake
10kg - whole maize
10kg - wheat bran
2.07kg - lime
13kg - wheat pollard
3kg - fishmeal
17kg - maize germ
5kg - sunflower cake
700g - bone meal
3.4kg - soya meal
18g - Pre-mix
1g - zinc bacitracitrach
1g - coccidiostat
14g - salt
7g - mycotoxin binder

Making of 70 kg bag of layers’ mash (18 weeks and above)

8kg - fishmeal
10kg - maize bran, rice germ or wheat bran
34kg - whole maize
6kg - lime
12kg - Soya
Amino acids
70kg - Threonine
175g - premix
50g - toxin binder
70g - lysine
35g - tryptophan
35g - methionine

The feed for layers should contain a DCP of between 16-18%. They should also contain calcium which will aid them in the formation of eggshells as laying eggs most times lack calcium.

Formulation of a 70 kg bag of broiler feed

The broilers all have different requirements in the various stages of  their growth in the terms of protein, energy and minerals. This makes it very important for the farmers to adopt the feed rations according to their specific requirements for maximum productivity.
The younger ones need protein heavily to effectively develop feathers, muscles, etc. 
They need a DCP of around 22-24% and this guide will aid you:

Starter feed for broilers (1-4 weeks)

14kg - soya bean meal
40kg - whole maize
70g - premix
12kg - fishmeal (or omena)
4kg - lime
Amino acids
35g - Threonine
35g - lysine

Preparing broiler Finisher feed (70kg)

13.3kg - wheat pollard
6 kg - cotton seed cake
16.7kg - maize germ
10kg - whole maize
3kg - fishmeal 2kg of lime
10 kg - wheat bran
3.4kg - soya meal
40g - bone meal
4.7kg - sunflower cake
10g - grower PMX
5g - Zincbacitrach
5g - salt
5g - coccidiostat
Please note: If you own above 500 birds, it will be best to make 1 ton of feed at a time, that's around 14 bags.
To do that, multiply every single ingredients by 14. 
Also remember, feed may lose their quality if they stay for above a month.

Daily feed requirements for each of the growth stage

Try to maintain the adequate quantities of feed for each stage as shown:
- An egg-layers require 130 - 140g of feed each day
- Chickens require minimum 60 g each day, if they happen finish their daily rations, then you give them vegetables and fruit cuttings to make sure they are fed continuously.
- Pullets that are about to begin laying of eggs should feed on 60 g for 2½ mnths. After that, you put them on the layer's diet (140 g each day). 
You should also supplement their feed with edible plant leaves, vegetables and fruit peelings as an addition to their feed rations.
- Broiler chicks need about 67g each day. The finishers need 67g of feed each day until the day of slaughter.
- Never include rotten maize in their feed, they're very sensitive to aflatoxins.
Appreciation: InfoGuideAfrica.com
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